Published Reports Chile
ReporterDr. Patricio Cortés Picazo Director EMS SAMU Metropolitano Santiago de Chile 2010-2013 Emergency Medical Services SAMU Metropolitano Santiago de Chile Role in incident: Chief Operations Network Emergency Medical Services And Hospital System Co-authors: Dr. Carlos Becerra, Dr. Luis Herrada, Mr. Roberto Araneda, Ms. Carolina Astorga
Summary: Prison Fire in Santiago de ChileOn December 8, 2010 (6:12AM), the SAMU Metropolitan Santiago de CHILE (EMS) was alerted of a fire in the Prison of San Miguel with 1,900 inmates and guards inside. Most of the victims died of inhalation of smoke or toxic gases and burns (81 deads). In addition to ambulances in EMS of Santiago de Chile with advanced life support (ALS) and basic life support (BLS) hospitals with burn units, general public and private hospitals, other EMS [100 km +/-] as well as the "centralized beds unit" were activated. The "Centralized Beds Unit" was a unit created 5-6 years ago to coordinate needs and costs due to ICU beds always being full. It is a unit managed by nurses and doctors that overviews availability of public and private Intensive Care Units beds in the city and some regions of the country. This unit is in constant communication with EMS communication centre, Emergency Rooms and ICUs. Both are in the city and located away from the incident. Other relevant organizations like Civilian Protection and Ministry of Health were alerted of this Mass Casualty Incident in progress from EMS coordinating centre (131). On scene work consisted of: primarily triage of 466 patients who were burned (using START triage), of whom 81 were declared dead on-scene, 20 patients were evacuated to 9 different Emergency rooms. There were 7 ambulances with ALS competency and 13 ambulances with BLS competency on-scene. No patients were transported more than 17 km in the primary evacuation, none died after 24 hours. All patients were discharged from secondary health care facilities alive.
Published Reports Finland
ReporterDr. Timo Jama Medical Director of EMS Päijät-Häme Social and Health Care Group Role in incident: Incident Commander (working duty officer/HEMS physician at that time)
Summary: School shooting in JokelaOn November 7th 2007 a student at Jokela high school opened fire on students and employees inside the school building. He also attempted to start a fire, but did not succeed. Eight people (the principle, school nurse and six young high school students) were killed by a student at the school who opened fire on school premises. The shooter shot himself and died afterwards in hospital. Challenges were that it took 2 hours to secure the site for Emergency Medical Services to access. TETRA radio was periodically not working.
ReporterMr. Lasse Viljam Raatiniemi Chief of Medicine for ground EMS at Oulu University Hospital, Division of Pre-Hospital Emergency Care Role in incident: Author works as Chief of Medicine for ground EMS units in health care district and as HEMS doctor in FinnHEMS 50. The author did not directly participate in the excercise.
Summary: Plane crash exercise OuluThe disaster exercise was organised on the coast of Oulu, the largest city in northern Finland with 196,382 inhabitants. There is a university hospital located in Oulu and it functions as a major trauma center for the entire northern part of Finland with about 750,000 inhabitants. The land area of the catchment area is about 50% of the land area in Finland. Oulu is known as a technology city and is also an important university city (Oulu University). Oulu airport is located in Oulunsalo, about 15 kilometres from Oulu center. It is the second largest airport in Finland. The road-network is well-developed and the university hospital is easily accessed by ground ambulance. Hailuoto is the third largest island of Finland with a population about 1000 inhabitants. Hailuoto is accessed by ferry and transport from Hailuoto center to Oulu center (ferry and driving time by car) is about one hour. The organisation responsible for administration of pre-hospital emergency medical services is Oulu University hospital (Northern Ostrobothnia Health Care District). Emergency medical services are operated by Fire Brigades (urgent missions) and privatists (non-urgent missions). The physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical services are operated by FinnHEMS. The only HEMS unit, FinnHEMS 50, has its base in Oulu airport. EMS have four tiers: first responders (fire brigade), basic- and advanced level ambulances and FinnHEMS 50. Field commander on duty has the operational commando for EMS- units on daily basis. Field commanders have education as paramedics. Dispatch center has catchment area for the whole of the North of Finland. All 112 calls are answered by specially-educated operators, units are dispatched based on risk evaluation and operational procedures.
ReporterDr. Lasse Raatiniemi Role in incident: Treatment officer
Co-authorsTommi pekanoja Role in incident: Observer, Field supervisor Pasi Lehto Role in incident: Observer, pre-hospital anaesthesiologist
Summary: Plane crash exercise KuusamoThe incident took place in Finland at Kuusamo Airport. A passenger aircraft with 20 passangers and four crew members had a tough landing after light contact with another aircraft in the air. In the secondary triage: three red, seven yellow, 12 green and two black patients. The success factors in this major incident excercise were very fast initiation of major incident protocol, the use of local emergency medical response team and good communication. Another success factor was that EMS units also from other hospital districts were dispatched and they communicated and worked effectively during the exercise. In a very rural area, with limited number of EMS units, co-operation with other hospital districts is of great importance. The mandatory major incident communication simulation trainings have probably improved the communication during full scale excercies. The EMS communication plan is similar in all hospital districts in Northern Finland. HEMS unit was not able to fly to the scene due to weather restrictions. However, HEMS doctor (DOC) and HEMS crew member (HCM) responded using a rapid response unit.
ReporterPauliina Valkovirta Role in incident: Planner and organizer of Master degree program in Emergency Care Management.
Summary: Merisärkkä2016 - night club fire exercise. The night club fire exercise took Place in Finland at Kalajoki Hiekkasärkät. The exercise was planned and organised by six students of the Master`s degree programme in Emergency Care Management and it was carried out in co-operation with local emergency care service, fire service, police and other authorities. Kalajoki Hiekkasärkät is popular tourist attraction on the coast of Kalajoki especially at summer time. Kalajoki is quite small town with about 12500 inhabitants and the land area is 2391,30km2. The town is known as travelling, farming and metal industry. the area of Kalajoki Hiekkasärkät is located about ten kilometres away from Kalajoki town to the south. Night club Merisärkkä is one of many restaurants anf nigth clubs of the area of Hiekkasärkät. At the best season there can be even 3000 people having a party at the Merisärkkä night club. We decided to plan and organize that kind of exercise because there has been many disastrous night club accidents around the world in recent years. As we also know there has ever been that kind of exercise in Finland before. The major incident exercice planning and organizing was part of our Master`s degree studies.Hiekkasärkät of Kalajoki is located about ten kilometres away from the town of Kalajoki by the seaside.